Ronaldo has followed Lionel Messi out of the World Cup after Uruguay beat Portugal 2-1 in the last 16.
Two goals from Edinson Cavani put the South American side into the last eight after Pepe had earlier pulled things level for the Portuguese in the Fisht Olympic Stadium in Sochi.
Ronaldo could not add to the four goals he scored in the group stages.
The 33-year-old has won almost everything there is to win as a player - but his country's exit in Russia means he is now unlikely to ever lift the World Cup.
Uruguay will play France in their quarter-final on Friday.
France were the first team in to the last eight after a thrilling 4-3 win over Argentina which sent Messi home.
Antoine Griezmann had given Les Bleus an early lead from the penalty spot in Kazan before Argentina struck twice through Angel Di Maria and Garbriel Mercado.
But a leveller from Benjamin Pavard was followed by two goals from French wonderkid Kylian Mbappe.
An injury-time goal from Sergio Aguero proved to be a consolation.
It means Lionel Messi ends the World Cup with just one goal - and at 31 he may never again grace a competition that he has never truly lit up.
England will have to wait until Tuesday to see if they can book their place in the quarters, with Colombia the opponents.